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The geography of the province ranges from coastal lowland at sea level to the highest mountain peak at 4015 meters. The coastal lowland varies from sandy beaches in the east to a rocky coastline towards the PNGIndonesian Border. There are pockets of swampy areas and several fast flowing rivers between Vanimo and Aitape. The highland areas of the province are characterised by some of highest peaks in the country found in the Star Mountains in Telefomin District, the Torricelli Range dividing Aitape, Lumi and Nuku areas, and the Bewani Range separating Vanimo, Green River and Bewani areas.

The difficult and harsh geography of the province has presented, and will continue to pose, major constraints and challenges for socio-economic development of the province. The low development indicators in education, health, economic activities and infrastructure development in the province have been as a result of such geographical conditions.